PenrodEllis FDD - Certified Experts in Electronic Discovery & Computer Forensics
PenrodEllis Forensic Data Discovery (FDD) of Denver, Colorado can address any issue involving computer-based evidence, from the mundane to the most complex. Whether one's case is civil, criminal or internal, if it includes Electronically Stored Information and you need it analyzed, then we can help. Through our proprietary Computer Forensics Taxonomy, PenrodEllis forensic computer examiners can recover and analyze more computer evidence than any other analysts and explain its meaning and import in a language one can understand. Our certified computer examiners will also prepare expert reports and testify under oath at depositions, hearings and trial.
PenrodEllis FDD of Denver, Colorado conducts forensic computer examinations to recover incriminating, exculpatory and mitigating computer evidence. Computer investigations require considerable expertise in hardware and software technologies, written and oral communications, and rules of evidence. PenrodEllis forensic compouter examiners are certified experts and possess all the requisite skills to conduct forensic computer investigations. We have been conducting computer examinations since 1997.
TYPICAL ALLEGATIONS REQUIRING COMPUTER FORENSICSTheft of trade secrets & intellectual property
Possession or distribution of contraband files (illegal graphic images) 
Software piracy/copyright infringement
Penetration/compromise of a network by a hacker or employees
Control or exploitation of a computer through malicious software
Recovery of encrypted (password protected) volumes, folders and files
Embezzlement & frauds
Spousal misconduct & divorce
Cyber stalking & harassment
Probation or parole violations
Employee misconduct; misuse of corporate assets
Wrongful termination
Attaching external storage devices to computers
Transferring files to external storage devices and/or personal email accounts
Printing documents & images
Deleting files
Opening & viewing files
Changing or manipulating files
Computer use or logon by a particular person on a specific date/time
Accessing restricted data or locations
Communicating online with certain parties 
Authenticity of email messages & other online communications
Erasing (wiping) storage device or volume
Downloading, accessing & sharing digital photographs & videos
Internal and external hard disk drives are the single largest source of ESI in any matter involving e-discovery, computer forensics and incident response. Electronic Discovery and digital forensics are not the same thing. While seemingly analogous, the eDiscovery process is actually a component of litigation support and not investigative services. Forensic examination of recovered ESI is not conducted nor expert reports and opinions rendered. The technical aspects of eDiscovery far exceed the analytic.
E-discovery and computer forensics are primarily focused on hard disk drives. The available storage space on modern hard drives is very large and the price of such devices is quite low. In fact, hard drives have replaced digital tapes as the preferred medium for system backups.Forensic computer examinations are primarily analytic in nature and experience is the cornerstone of that analysis. Our exclusive Taxonomy is based on 15 years experience and training in digital forensics. The goal of the PenrodEllis Taxonomy is to turn computer data into computer evidence. We accomplish that by collecting and analyzing ESI in a forensically sound manner with the aim of presenting facts and opinions about that evidence in a court of law.
Hard disk drives (HDD) are mechanical devices. They consist of two or more magnetized platters stacked on a revolving spindle. Arms with read/write heads sweep across the platters to both find and read saved ESI and write it to the platters. Solid state drives (SSD) arte slowly replacing these mechanical storage units, offering greater speed and reliability.The term computer forensics has not been around very long - but seems outdated now, given the dramatic expansion of digital technology into almost every aspect of our daily lives. With the advent of ubiquitous smart phones and MP3 players, as well as netbook and tablet computers, audio recorders, cameras and television DVRs, the term is inadequate to its purpose. Digital forensics - as a both a title and description - better reflects the array of different devices and appliances that can be forensically examined.
Regardless of the type of device containing it, all ESI is stored in digital format. At its base level ESI is nothing more than a series of positive and negative electrical impulses - 1's and 0's - not much different in concept than Morse Code, which is a series of short and long electrical impulses. However, most people still use the term computer forensics even when referring to the forensic examination of mobile phones, iPods, and external USB devices. Therefore, computer forensics is the term used here. 
ESI is not stored on hard drives or other storage devices in  contiguous sectors or clusters. It is scattered throught the drive. Operating systems save ESI to the first available physical space on the drive. E-discovery and digital forensics is about reading and recovering this data.
PenrodEllis Forensic Data Discovery
1805 South Bellaire Street, Suite 401
Denver, Colorado 80222
(303) 691-0047